CPI FMJD RULES FOR DRAUGHTS COMPOSITION IN RUSSIAN DRAUGHTS (Правила для русских шашек CPI FMJD)

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CPI FMJD RULES FOR DRAUGHTS COMPOSITION IN RUSSIAN DRAUGHTS (Правила для русских шашек CPI FMJD) Empty CPI FMJD RULES FOR DRAUGHTS COMPOSITION IN RUSSIAN DRAUGHTS (Правила для русских шашек CPI FMJD)

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http://cpi.fmjd.org/new-edition-rules-64-and-him-translation/

The English text of the RULES-64 (RI-64) is given (at the request of the translator) in a more accurate version.


CPI FMJD RULES FOR DRAUGHTS COMPOSITION
IN RUSSIAN DRAUGHTS


Approved by the CPI FMJD on January 29th, 2010
(corrected and added to on July 17th, 2011 and on June 2nd, 2016)

These Rules are based on the contemporary developments in the field of the draughts composition as well as on the positive traditions of its leading schools, that is, of the school of the former USSR ("Shashechnyi Kodeks", Moskva ["Draughts Codex", Moscow], 1986) and of the Belorussian school ("Shashechnyi Kodeks Respubliki Belarus. Kompozitsiia" ["Draughts Codex of the Republic of Belarus. Composition."], 2004 (published in "Moy Zhurnal" ["My Journal"], 2004, №3)).

1. SUBJECT OF THE DRAUGHTS COMPOSITION
1.1. General Provisions
1.1.1. The Draughts Composition: a kind of creative draughts activity involving analytical work, retrograde analysis and immediately creative search of new themes and ideas in certain types. The draughts composition is based on the material (draughts pieces) and the rules of the game of draughts.
1.1.2. Draughts Composition (a Work of the Draughts Composition): author's complex which consists of: 1) an array of draughts pieces on the draughts board, 2) a task, 3) a solution, and which conforms to both the technical and aesthetic requirements set out in these Rules.
1.1.3. Task: a pre-specified condition of achieving a certain goal (win, draw, blocking). The task is fulfilled by White (attacking side) playing first.
1.1.4. Solution of Composition: a complex of the variations through which the author's idea is expressed.
1.1.5. Variation: a development of play based on a sequence of white and black moves.
1.1.6. Move: a movement of a piece from one square to another executed according to the rules of the game of draughts. There are to be distinguished: a simple move — a movement of a piece from one square to another without a capture, and a capturing move (capture) — a movement of a piece from one square to another involving a capture. Sacrifice: a capture offer (synonymous phrase: giveaway move) of one or several pieces.
1.1.7. Theme: a problem statement determining the nature of a composition.
1.1.8. Idea: the intention itself by means of which a particular theme is realised by the author.

1.2. Record of Solution
The composition solution is recorded in short notation. If in the long notation a move is recorded as c1-d2, then in the short notation — as d2. With white pieces being placed on c1 and e1, the relevant notation is cd2/ed2.
1.2.1. Compositional Variations (CV) (except the main variation) are indicated by uppercase letters of the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, D, E, etc. The main variation is, in need of being referred to, indicated as VP.
Repeated Variations ("Sequences") are indicated by lowercase letters of the Roman alphabet, followed by the arithmetic numbers: A1, A2, B1, D4, etc.
1.2.2. Compositional Try Plays (CompTrPl) are indicated by Roman numerals: I, II, III, IV, V, etc.
1.2.3. Virtual Compositional Play (CompVirtPl) is indicated by Roman numerals, followed by lowercase letters of the Roman alphabet: I-A, I-B, I-C, IV-F, IX-A, etc.
1.2.4. Non-compositional variations given for proving the solution are indicated by lowercase letters of the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, d, e, etc.

1.3. Types of the Draughts Composition. Main Types:
1.3.1. Miniature (Sections 2, 3 of these Rules)
1.3.2. Problem (Section 2 of these Rules)
1.3.3. Endgame Study (Section 3 of these Rules)
1.3.4. Zadacha (see the "Iternational CPI FMJD Rules for Zadachas")
1.3.5. King Problem (Section 2 of these Rules)
1.3.6. Subtypes
1.3.6.1. Zadacha-like Problem (Section 2 of these Rules)
1.3.6.2. Polyproblem (Sections 2, 3 of these Rules)

1.4. Additional Types of the Draughts Composition
1.4.1. Positional Problem (Kontsovka): a work of the draughts composition with the predominance of positional and endgame-study devices of play, and with no more than 8 pieces of each colour.
1.4.2. Figurative (damographic, mosaic) Compositions: compositions the main aim of which is the creation, through initial position or solution, of an associative graphic image.
1.4.3. "Fourth Type" (Zadumki): in general, the compositions related to retroanalysis. Presently, the following kinds of this type are known: a) puzzles with the task of achieving a draw; b) to take a false move back and find the winning move; c) in a drawn position, to add black pieces so that White wins; d) "reversi" — to reverse in the initial position the colours of pieces and fulfill the task; e) compositions of the main types where the starting (for the draughts game) number of pieces is exceeded (in Russian draughts, more than 12); f) cooperative compositions; g) compositions of the main types with a double task; h) retrograde analysis (retroanalysis) — proof of legality of a given array of pieces; i) "white hole" — change of the configuration of the draughts board (e.g. selecting a square which must be forbidden for moving into, or jumping over).

1.5. Systems of Games
These Rules are defined for the composition in Russian draughts. On the 64 draughts board there are also the following systems within which the composition is practised: a) Brazilian draughts; b) Italian draughts; c) checkers; d) stolbovye shashki (bashni), e) giveaway draughts (poddavki), f) Belorussian draughts; g) Portuguese draughts.

2. PROBLEMS AND MINIATURES

2.1. Definition of Problem, Elements of Problem's Form and Content
2.1.1. Problem: a work of the draughts composition conforming to the technical and aesthetic requirements of these Rules (section 2). The essence of the Problem is the combinational play. The number of pieces in the initial position is from 7 for one of the colours up to 12 for each colour. Problems have the task: "White to play and win" (for short: "Win"). Allowed is also the task: "White to play and draw" (for short: "Draw").
The Problem (Miniature) type can have some overlap with the Polyproblem subtype (article 2.5.2) and the Endgame Study type (section 3).
Miniature: a work of the draughts composition conforming to the technical and aesthetic requirements of these Rules (section 2). The essence of the Miniature is the combinational play. The minimum number of pieces in the initial position for White is not regulated; the maximum number for each colour — 6. Miniatures have the task: "White to play and win" (for short: "Win"). Allowed is also the task: "White to play and draw" (for short: "Draw").
The Miniature type completely conforms to the requirements set out for the Problem type.
2.1.2. Force Division within Types
For Problems:
a) Medium Problems (from 7 pieces for one of the colours up to 9 pieces for each colour (constituent correlations are as follows: 5х7, 7х5, 6х7, 7х6, 6х8, 8х6)).
b ) Large Problems (from 10 pieces for one of the colours up to 12 pieces for each colour (constituent correlations are as follows: 8х10, 10х8, 9х10, 10х9, 9х11, 11х9)).
2.1.3. Constituent Parts of Problem (Miniature)
a) Initial Position
b) Introduction
c) Main (combinational) part
d) Endgame
e) Final (or Final Motif/System)
Obligatory constituent parts without which problems (miniatures) do not exist are: a), c), e).
2.1.4. Initial Position
The Initial Position: an arrangement of pieces given on the draughts board by the author, which must conform to the rules of the game of draughts. The first move by White from the initial position must not be a capture.
In the initial position of problems, the exceeding of White's forces over Black's forces must not be more than two pieces.
2.1.5. Introduction
The introduction (sacrifice, positional play, exchange) resolves both the problems of necessity of observing the requirements to the Problem, and the immediately creative problems such as the search for additional variations and try plays, as well as the play deepening. The Problem's introduction ends with a simple move by Black. Problems may contain no introduction at all.
2.1.6. Main (combinational) part
The main (combinational) part (direct combination, countercombination and their, in variations, succsessive and parallel conjunction) exhibits original ideas as well as the deepening and modification of known ideas.
Combination: a forced, tactical variation based on the sacrifices of pieces which leads to a final capture by White. The minimal combination is the 1x1 exchange.
Besides the main (combinational) part, the combination may also be contained in the introduction and the endgame. In this case, both the introduction and the endgame are included into the main (combinational) part as its constituent parts.
Acceptable is also a combination executed by Black (countercombination); the task in this case is not changed (art. 2.1.1.).
As an exception, acceptable are also the combinations ending with a simple white move, as well as the combinations consisting only of the white sacrifices followed by a final blocking executed by a simple move.
2.1.7. Endgame
The Endgame: a positional play appearing after the main combinational part. The move right (the move must not be a capture) lies with Black. Endgames must conform to the technical and aesthetic requirements defined for endgame studies, except for obligatory branching into variations. The purpose of the endgame in a problem is its aesthetic completion. The endgame may be absent in a problem, that is, the problem's play can reach the final/final motif/system without proceeding through it.
2.1.8. Final: an economical final position with the fulfilled task (absence of Black pieces or their blocking). The blocking-final that contains white pieces necessary for blocking but not necessary for the win cannot be considered to be economical. [Examples: White: men b2, c1; Black: man a3: b2 is not necessary for the win here; White: kings e1, h2, man g3, Black: king g1, men f2, h4: g3 is not necessary for the win here.]. In the final, the move right lies with Black.
2.1.9. Final Motif (FM): an economical endgame position traditionally recognized by composers as equivalent of the final. The final motif differs from the final in that at least one move by Black remains in it until the task is fulfilled. The move right in the motif is for Black, and this move must not be a capture. The play from the moment of the appearance of the final motif till the expected final is not given in the solution.
The final motifs are classified into the categories: A, B, C, D.
A) The final motifs leading by exact play to an economical final position, that is, to the final.
In determining whether a motif belongs to the category "A", it is sufficient that there exists at least one continuation that complies with the requirements to the motifs of the category "A".
[Examples: White: man a1, Black: man a3: (b2), c3; White: king a1, Black: king h8: (g7), h8; White: king f6, Black: men a3, d6, h8: (b2), a1(e5), f6(g7), h8; White: king f8, Black: men c5, d6: (b4), a3].
B) The final motifs leading by exact play to an uneconomical final position.
In determining whether a motif belongs to category "B", it is sufficient that, in the absence of the continuations of the category "A", there exists at least one continuation meeting the requirements to the motifs of the category "B".
[Examples: White: men a1, h2, Black: men a3, h4; White: men b2, f2, g3, Black: men d4, e5; White: kings e1, d8, Black: king h4; White: men a1, g1, Black: men a3, h2; White: king h6, man b2, Black: king c1, man a3; White: king c1, man b2, Black: c1, man a3; White: kings a1, a5, h4, Black: kings d8, h8].
C) The final motifs leading by inexact play to an economical final position (that is to the final) or to an uneconomical final position.
To them also belong positions with a single white piece (either man or king) in which more than one move remains until the task is fulfilled.
[Examples: White: king c1, Black: man c5; White: king a1, Black: men a3, a7; White: king a1, Black: men a3, a7, h8; White: king a3, Black: men a5, a7, b8; White: king e1, man a3, Black: king c1, man d2].
D) The final motifs ending in a draw.
The final motifs ending in a draw include the positions exhibiting the following features:
1 — a moment of repetition of moves. [Examples: White: king b8, Black: king e1, men e3, f4: (g3), a7(gf2), b8=; White: king a3, Black: king b2, men f4, g3: (g7), f8(b2), a3=; White: king f4, Black: king b6, men e7, f6: (a7), b8(g1), h2=; White: king c3, Black: king h6, men c7, e7, f6: (g7), d2(h6), c3=].
2 — a moment of occupying the diagonal a1-h8 with the presence of three black pieces. [Examples: White: king h6, Black: king e3, men f4, g3: g7=; White: king d6, Black: men a5, c3, e3: e5=].
3 — a moment of obtaining a position being sufficient for a draw without occupying the diagonal a1-h8 (one king against two black pieces). [Examples: White: king f8, Black: king c3, men f4 g3: h6=; White: king c3, Black: men b6, f2, h8: d4=; White: king h6, Black: men a5, e5, e7, f6: f8=].
2.1.10. System: an endgame position with two (at the minimum) CVs which, traditionally, is not divided by composers into CVs. In systems, the move right lies with Black, and this move must not be a capture.
[Examples: White: king b6, man h2, Black: men f2, h4; White: man с1, Black: man с5; White: king d4, man a5, Black: men a7, f2].
2.1.11. Compositional Variation (CV): a variation with exact play and unique solution which ends in a final/final motif/system.
The main variation (identified, in need of being referred to, as VP) in problems is called the Thematic Variation (TV).
Repeated variations (sequences): variations entirely repeating CVs of the author's solution. In problems they are regarded as separate variations, and they positively affect marks allocated to such problems.
Problems may consist of only a single compositional variation.

For the classification according to the "Levels of the Rules for Competitions" (art. 6.1.), the division of variations is as follows:
FIRST category — (introduction, main combinational part, endgame in problems) — without any duals in the CVs ending in the finals or FMs of the categories A, B.
SECOND category — (introduction, main combinational part, endgame in problems) — without any duals in the CVs ending in the finals or FMs of the category C.
THIRD category — (introduction, main combinational part, endgame in problems) — acceptable is one dual (sort of an inexact final capture) in the CVs ending in the finals or FMs of the categories A, B, C.
FOURTH category — (introduction, main combinational part, endgame in problems) — acceptable is one dual in the CVs ending in the finals or FMs of the categories A, B, C.
FIFTH category — for the endgame part of problems, acceptable are two duals (with the second dual being a final capture) in a CV.
SIXTH category — (proof variations) — in any variation, duals and side solutions are acceptable.

2.1.12. Compositional Try Play (CompTrPl) and Compositional Virtual Play (CompVirtPl). CompTrPl: a virtual solution (of a problem or a CV) which leads to the fulfilment of the task in all variations (representing CompVirtPl) except one, namely, the one that contains an exact refutation by Black.
CompTrPls and CompVirtPls are not evaluated separately, but they positively affect the mark of the CVs (in wich they occur) and of the problem as a whole.
Besides the CompTrPls and CompVirtPls, in problems also non-compositional try- and virtual plays (TrPl and VirtPl) are allowed.

2.1.13. Solution of Problem: a complex of the CVs (CompTrPls, CompVirtPls) of a problem through which the author's idea is expressed.
The solution must be given up to the end, up to the final/final motif/system. It is not permitted to interrupt the solution for the purpose of disguising a dual (except for an inexact final capture after which a final or a final motif appears on the board). In the solution, all white moves must be given. It is not desirable to shorten the solution when by means of this any white moves (e.g. с3(b4, d4, h8)) are excluded, and especially when any dual is disguised through it.
In the solution, non-compositional variations, try- and virtual plays indicated as a proof of the fulfilment of the task may be included.
In the solution, it is not necessary to indicate all sequences.
White's first move in problems must not be a capture.

2.2. Technical Requirements to Problems
Violation of the technical requirements in a problem (CV, CompTrPl, CompVirtPl) annuls it.
2.2.1. Originality of Author's Intention. Every problem must be original, that is, it must not coincide with any published problem (art. 5.1.), its part or any known published position from a game or analysis.
A version (inessential change of the solution of a known published position) does not entail any change of aurthorship.
The question of the change of authorship in the case of the deepening of a known published position or in the case of a change of the construction of an endgame is considered by the panel of judges on the case-by-case basis.
2.2.2. Solvability
Problems must not contain any reinforcement of Black's play leading to the non-fulfilment of the task.
2.2.3. The Uniqueness of Solution of any problem (or CV) requires from the task to be satisfied in a unique manner. A series of moves leading to the fulfilment of the task which differes from the series of moves indicated by the author as a CV and which ends with another, non-author's, final position is called the Side solution.
2.2.4. Purity of Solution
For the endgame and the main combinational part, only one dual is permitted in each CV, CompTrPl, CompVirtPl. In the case when the second dual in a CV represents an inexact final capture, this capture is not ragarded as a dual.
Dual: inexact move, inexact play in a CV, CompTrPl, CompVirtPl which do not change substantially the essence of the author's intension. These include:
- move reordering
[Examples: White: king e5, men а1, g3, h4, Black: kings b6, e7, men a3, f8: g7/аb2, b2, f4+];
- sacrifice of different pieces
[Examples: White: kings a1, b2 , men g3, h4, Black: kings b6, e7, men с5, f8: g7/d4, d4, f4+];
- movement of a man through adjacent squares of the board ("alternative move")
[Examples: White: men a5, e1, Black: men a7, f6: d2/f2(e5), e3+];
- movement of a king to different squares of the same diagonal, without any change of play in a CV
[Examples: White: king e1, man h2; Black: men e3, h4: c3/b4/a5(f2), d4+];
- completion of a capture by a king to different squares of the same diagonal, without any change of play in a CV
[Examples: White: kings e5, h6, Black: men a3, d6: c7/b8(b2), e5+];
- prolongation of the solution with the position repetition
[Examples: White: kings a3, f4, h2, Black: king d4, men g7, h4: g1(df6), b2 [h2(d4), g1], g3, h8+];
- alternative capture in different directions
[Examples: White: king h2, Black: men c7, e7, g3, g5, g7, - h2:f4:h6:b8 / h2:d6:f8:b8].

Note: as an exception is regarded the alternative capturing move "Mill-capture":
a) circuitous capture in different directions
[Examples: White: king d8, Black: men b4, c7, e7, f4, - d8:a5:d8 / d8:g5:d8];
b) circuitous capture being part of a more complicated capture
[Examples: White: man h2, Black: men d2, e5, e7, g3, g5, g7, - h2:f4:h6:f8:d6:c1 / h2:f4:d6:f8:c1].

2.2.5. Economy
Problems must be economical in form. They must not contain any figurants (that is, the pieces bearing no meaning) which can be removed from the board without any distortion of the author's intention.
Economy of the final/final motif/system: they must not contain superfluous white pieces not necessary for the fulfilment of the task.
The economy of the blocking-finals in problems consists in the absence of superfluous pieces not necessary for the fulfilment of the task, i.e. for the win. The kind (man or king) of the blocking pieces is not taken into account.
Some requirements to the economy of problems are given in the art. 2.3.6., treating of the aesthetic requirements.
Additions to the subtype of the zadacha-like problems — see art. 2.3.1.

2.3. Aesthetic Requirements to Problems
Violation of the aesthetic requirements reduces the problem's merit.
2.3.1. Legality
The initial position of problems must be legal, that is, it must conform to the rules of the game of draughts. In the case when a preliminary attacking move ("ready capture") by Black seems to be impossible, the author must indicate a proof of such possibility in accordance with the Rules valid for the period of the conduct of a composing competition. The proof of legality must be started from the array in which neither of the pieces, be it white or black, is under attack.
It is not necessary to prove the legality of a position containing no attacking black piece ("ready capture").
2.3.2. Originality of Author's Intention:
a) thematic novelty: search of new themes, new complexes of known themes, finals/final motifs/systems, CVs (CompTrPls, CompVirtPls);
b) novelty of ideas: search of new ideas, beautiful exhibition of known ideas and play devices.
2.3.3. Beauty of the Solution
The beauty of the Solution is achieved through non-obvious, hard to be found moves combined with effective finals/final motifs/systems.
2.3.4. Branching into Variation.
Problems may consist of only a single CV. Other variations may be non-compositional. The availability in problems of two or more CVs enriches their content.
2.3.5. Purity of Solution
Any problem's solution must be pure, that is, without any duals in the introduction and main (combinational) part. Any endgame must contain at least one CV which complies with the technical and aesthetic requirements to endgames defined by these Rules. Absence of duals in CVs, CompTrPls, CompVirtPls determines the positive aesthetic appreciation of problems.
2.3.6. Naturalness and Economy
Traditionally, a natural array of pieces in the initial position of problems is more acceptable, but this is not a dogma. Also, the exhibition of an idea by fewer number of pieces (economically or as a miniature) is of no essential significance. None of a problem's force varieties can have any superiority over another.
Problem's economy provides for:
- active participation of all pieces in the solution;
- absence of passive pieces. The Passive Piece is a black piece not taking part in the solution till the final/final motif/system. In contrast to figurants, passive pieces cannot be removed from the board without any distortion of the author's intention.

2.4. King Problems
2.4.1. Definition of King Problem, Elements of King Problem's Form and Content
2.4.1.1. King Problem: a work of the draughts composition conforming to the technical and aesthetic requirements of these Rules (art. 2.1.5 to 2.3.6). The essence of the King Problem is the combinational play. The minimum number of pieces for White in the initial position is not regulated; the maximum number for each colour — 12. King problems have the task: "White to move and win" (for short: "Win"). Allowable is the task: "White to move and draw" (for short: "Draw").
King problems can have some overlap with the Polyproblem subtype (see art. 2.5.2.) and the Endgame Study type (section 3).
2.4.1.2. Force Division within King Problem Type
a) king-problem miniatures (the minimum number of pieces for White is not regulated; the maximum number — up to 6 pieces for each colour).
b) medium king problems (from 7 pieces for one of the colours up to 9 pieces for each colour).
c) large king problems (from 10 pieces for one of the colours up to 12 pieces for each colour).
2.4.1.3. Constituent Parts of the King Problem
a) Initial Position
b) Introduction
c) Main (combinational) part
d) Endgame
e) Final (or final motif/system)
The obligatary constituent psrts without which no king problem can exist are: a), c), e).
2.4.1.4. Initial Position
Initial Position: author's arrangement of pieces on the draughts board, which must conform to the rules of the game of draughts. The first White's move from the initial position must not be a capture.
In the initial position of king problems, kings may be present on either side. The number of kings and their correlation are not regulated.
Material balance (i.e. force correlation) (of White and Black) is not regulated.
In king problems, it is not desirable to use kings not in accordance with their proper features. The only justification for the use of kings instead of men, without enrichment of content, is the elimination of a side solution.

2.5. Subtypes
2.5.1. Definition of Zadacha-like Problem, Elements of Zadacha-like Problem's Form and Content
2.5.1.1. Zadacha-like Problem: a work of the draughts composition conforming to both technical and aesthetic requirements of these Rules (art. 2.1.4 to 2.1.7, art. 2.1.11 to 2.3.6.). The essence of the Zadacha-like Problem is the combinational play. The necessary requirement is the presence of a blocking-final in at least one of the CVs. The minimum number of the pieces for White in the initial position is not regulated; the maximum number for each colour is 12. Zadacha-like problems have the task: "White to play and win" (for short: "Win").
The zadacha-like problems can have some overlap with the Endgame Study type (section 3) and the Zadacha type (section 4).
2.5.1.2. Force Division within the Type
a) zadacha-like miniatures (the minimum number of pieces for White is not regulated; the maximum number — up to 6 pieces for each colour).
b) medium zadacha-like problems (from 7 pieces for one of the colours, up to 9 pieces for each colour).
c) large zadacha-like problems (from 10 pieces for one of the colours up to 12 pieces for each colour).
2.5.1.3. Constituent Parts of the Zadacha-like Problem
a) Initial Position
b) Introduction
c) Main (combinational) part
d) Endgame
e) Final (blocking-final)
Obligatory constituent parts without which zadacha-like problems do not exist are: a), c), e).
2.5.1.4. (change to art. 2.1.8.) The Final — a blocking, economical from the point of view of the zadacha type — must not contain any superfluous white pieces which do not take part in its construction. The final in a zadacha-like problem can be reached either after the direct combination or after the endgame.

2.5.2. Definition of Polyproblem, Elements of Polyproblem's Form and Content
2.5.2.1. Polyproblem: a work of the draughts composition conforming to both technical and aesthetic requirements of these Rules (section 2). The essence of the Polyproblem is the combinational play. The minimum number of the pieces for White in the initial position is not regulated; the maximum number for each colour is 12. Polyproblems have the task: "White to play and win" (for short: "Win").
Polyproblems can have some overlap with the types: Problems (miniatures) (art. 2.1.1.), King Problems (art. 2.4.), Zadacha-like Problems (art. 2.5.1) and Endgame Studies (section 3).
2.5.2.2. Force Division within the Type
a) polyproblem miniatures (the minimum number of pieces for White is not regulated; the maximum — 6 for each colour);
b) medium polyproblems (from 7 pieces for one of the colours, up to 9 for each colour);
c) large polyproblems (from 10 pieces for one of the colours, up to 12 for each colour).
2.5.2.3. Constituent Parts of Polyproblem
a) Initial Position
b) Introduction
c) Main (combinational) part
d) Endgame
e) Final (or final motif, system)
Obligatory constituent parts without which polyproblems (miniatures) do not exist are: a), c), e).
2.5.2.4. Compositional Variation (CV): a variation with exact play and unique solution which ends in a final/final motif/system.
In the Problem, the main variation (in need of being referred to, identified as VP) is called the Thematic Variation.
Repeated variations (sequences): variations entirely repeating CVs of the author's solution. In problems, they are regarded as separate, and positively affect marks allocated to such problems.
Every polyproblem must contain not less than two compositional variations, with the second variation not being a "sequence".
2.5.2.5. Branching into Variations
The main requirement to polyproblems, differentiating it from problems, is the presence in the solution of at least two CVs. In this case, no CompTrPl can replace the CV.


(to be continued)


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CPI FMJD RULES FOR DRAUGHTS COMPOSITION IN RUSSIAN DRAUGHTS (Правила для русских шашек CPI FMJD) Empty Re: CPI FMJD RULES FOR DRAUGHTS COMPOSITION IN RUSSIAN DRAUGHTS (Правила для русских шашек CPI FMJD)

Сообщение  Admin в Сб Окт 08, 2016 9:05 am

3. ENDGAME STUDIES

3.1. Definition of Endgame Study, Elements of Endgame Study's Form and Content
3.1.1. Endgame Study: a work of the draughts composition conforming to both technical and aesthetic requirements of these Rules (section 3), with the play (subtle positional or short combinational) typical of endgames. Endgame studies can have one of the two following tasks: "White to move and win", "White to move and draw".
The Endgame Study type can have some overlap with the Miniature type (art. 2.1.1.), King Problem type (art. 2.4.) and Polyproblem subtype (art. 2.5.2.).
3.1.2. Force Division within the Type
a) Miniendgame Study (up to 2 pieces for White, and up to 6 pieces for Black);
b) Endgame Study (from 3 to 4 pieces for White, and up to 6 pieces for Black).
3.1.3. Constituent Parts of Endgame Study
a) Initial Position
b) Introduction
c) Main part
d) Final (or final motif, system)
Obligatory constituent parts without which endgame studies do not exist are: a), c), d).
3.1.4. Initial position
Initial position: author's array of pieces on the draughts board, which must conform to the rules of the game of draughts.
3.1.5. Introduction
The Introduction: (sacrifice, positional play, exchange) resolves both the problems of necessity of conformity with the technical requirements to endgame studies, and the immediately creative problems, such as search for additional variations, try plays, play deepening. The introduction ends with a simple move by Black. The introduction in endgame studies can be absent.
The introduction which is technically not forced and which contains neither compositional variations nor try plays is not forbidden, but, at the same time, not desirable.
3.1.6. Main Part
The main part — (either positional or combinational play: a set of the CVs of the author's solution) — exhibits new ideas as well as the deepening and modification of the known ones.
3.1.7. Final: an economical final position with the fulfilled task (absence of black pieces or their blocking). The blocking-final that includes white pieces necessary for blocking but not necessary for the win cannot be considered to be economical. [Examples: White: man b2, c1, Black: man a3: b2 is not necessary here for the win; White: kings е1, h2, man g3, Black: king g1, men f2, h4: g3 is not necessary here for the win]. The move right in the final is for Black.
3.1.8. Final Motif (FM): an economical endgame position traditionally recognized by composers as the equivalent of the final. The final motif differs from the final in that at least one move by Black remains in it until the task is fulfilled. The move right in the motif is for Black, and this move must not be a capture. The play from the moment of the appearance of the final motif till the expected final is not given in the solution.
Final motifs are classified into the categories: A, B, C, D.
A) The final motifs leading by exact play to an economical final position, that is to the final.
In determining whether a motif belongs to the category "A", it is sufficient that there exists at least one continuation which complies with the requirements to the motifs of the category "A".
[Examples: White: man a1, Black: man a3: (b2), c3; White: king a1, Black: king h8: (g7), h8; White: king f6, Black: men a3, d6, h8: (b2), a1(e5), f6(g7), h8; White: king f8, Black: men c5, d6: (b4), a3].
B) The final motifs leading by exact play to an uneconomical final position.
In determining whether a motif belongs to the category "B", it is sufficient that, in the absence of continuations of the category "A", there exists at least one continuation meeting the requirements to the motifs of the category "B".
[Examples: White: men a1, h2, Black: men a3, h4; White: men b2, f2, g3, Black: men d4, e5; White: kings e1, d8, Black: king h4; White: men a1, g1, Black: men a3, h2; White: king h6, man b2, Black: king c1, man a3; White: king c1, man b2, Black: c1, man a3; White: kings a1, a5, h4, Black: kings d8, h8].
C) The final motifs leading by inexact play to an economical final position (i. e. to the final) or to an uneconomical final position.
To them also belong positions with a single white piece (man or king) in which more than one move remains until the task is fulfilled.
[Examples: White: king c1, Black: man c5; White: king a1, Black: men a3, a7; White: king a1, Black: men a3, a7, h8; White: king a3, Black: men a5, a7, b8; White: king e1, man a3, Black: king c1, man d2].
D) The final motifs ending in a draw.
The final motifs ending in a draw include the positions exhibiting the following features:
1 — a moment of the repetition of moves. [Examples: White: king b8, Black: king e1, men e3, f4: (g3), a7(gf2), b8=; White: king a3, Black: king b2, men f4, g3: (g7), f8(b2), a3=; White: king f4, Black: king b6, men e7, f6: (a7), b8(g1), h2=; White: king c3, Black: king h6, men c7, e7, f6: (g7), d2(h6), c3=].
2 — a moment of occupying the diagonal a1-h8 with the presence of three black pieces. [Examples: White: king h6, Black: king e3, men f4, g3: g7=; White: king d6, Black: men a5, c3, e3: e5=].
3 — a moment of obtaining a position being sufficient for a draw without occupying the diagonal a1-h8 (one king against two black pieces). [Examples: White: king f8, Black: king c3, men f4 g3: h6=; White: king c3, Black: men b6, f2, h8: d4=; White: king h6, Black: men a5, e5, e7, f6: f8=].
3.1.9. System: an endgame position with two (at the minimum) CVs which, traditionally, is not divided by composers into CVs. In systems, the move right lies with Black, and this move must not be a capture.
[Examples: White: king b6, man h2, Black: men f2, h4; White: man с1, Black: man с5; White: king d4, man a5, Black: men a7, f2].
3.1.10. Compositional Variation (CV): a variation with exact play and unique solution which ends in a final/final motif/system.
The main variation (identified, in need of being referred to, as VP) in the Problem is called the Thematic Variation (TV).
Repeated variations (sequences): variations entirely repeating CVs of the author's solution. In endgame studies, they are regarded as separate, and positively affect the marks allocated to such endgame studies.
Endgame studies must contain not less than two compositional variations.

For the classification according to the "Levels of the Rules for Competitions" (art. 6.1.), the division of variations is as follows:
FIRST category — without any duals in the CVs ending in the finals or FMs of the categories A, B.
SECOND category — without any duals in the CVs ending in the finals or FMs of the category C.
THIRD category — acceptable is one dual (sort of an inexact final capture) in the CVs ending in the finals or FMs of the categories A, B, C.
FOURTH category — acceptable is one dual in the CVs ending in the finals or FMs of the categories A, B, C.
FIFTH category — acceptable are two duals (with the second dual being a final capture) in a CV.
SIXTH category — (proof variations) — duals and side solutions in any variation are acceptable.

3.1.11. Compositional Try Play (CompTrPl) and Compositional Virtual Play (CompVirtPl). CompTrPl: a virtual solution (of an endgame study or a CV) which leads to the fulfilment of the task in all variations (constituting CompVirtPl) except one, namely the one that contains an exact refutation by Black.
CompTrPls and CompVirtPls are not evaluated separately, but they positively affect the mark both of the CVs in which they are contained and of the endgame study as a whole.
3.1.12. Solution of Endgame Study: a complex of the CVs (CompTrPls, CompVirtPls) of an endgame study through which the author's idea is expressed.
The solution must be given up to the end, up to the final/final motif/system. It is not permitted to interrupt the solution for the purpose of disguising a dual (except for an inexact final capture after which a final or a final motif appears on the board). In the solution, all white moves must be given. It is not desirable to shorten the solution when by means of this any white moves (e.g. с3(b4, d4, h8)) are excluded, and especially when any dual is disguised through it.
Non-compositional variations, try- and virtual plays indicated as a proof of the fulfilment of the task may be included in the solution.
In the solution, it is not necessary to indicate all sequences.
White's first move in endgame studies must not be a capture.

3.2. Technical Requirements to Endgame Studies
Violation of the technical requirements in an endgame study (CV, CompTrPl, CompVirtPl) annuls it.
3.2.1. Originality of Author's Intention
Every endgame study must be original, that is, it must not coincide with any published endgame study (art. 5.1.), with its part, or with any known published position from a game or analysis.
A version (inessential change of the solution of a known published position) does not entail any change of aurthorship.
The deepening of a known published endgame study is counted to the new author only when he/she has added not less than two CVs (compositional variations) or CompTrPls (compositional try plays).
When only one CV is added, the question of change of authorship is considered by the panel of judges on the case-by-case basis.
3.2.2. Solvability
Endgame studies must not contain any reinforcement of Black's play leading to the non-fulfilment of the task.
3.2.3. The Uniqueness of Solution of any endgame study (or CV) requires from the task to be satisfied in a unique manner. A series of moves leading to the fulfilment of the task which differes from the series of moves indicated by the author as a CV, and which ends with another, non-author's, final position is called the Side solution.
3.2.4. Purity of Solution
In any CV, CompTrPl, CompVirtPl, only one dual is permitted. In the case when the second dual in a CV represents an inexact final capture, this capture is not considered to be a dual.
Duals before the branching into CVs are equated with side solutions.
Dual: inexact move, inexact play in a CV, CompTrPl, CompVirtPl which do not change substantially the essence of author's solution. These include:
- move reordering
[Examples: White: king e5, men а1, g3, h4, Black: kings b6 e7, men a3 f8: g7/аb2, b2, f4+];
- sacrifice of different pieces
[Examples: White: kings a1, b2 , men g3, h4, Black: kings b6, e7, men с5 f8: g7/d4, d4, f4+];
- movement by a man through adjacent squares of the board ("alternative move")
[Examples: White: men a5, e1, Black: men a7, f6: d2/f2(e5), e3+];
- move by a king to different squares of the same diagonal, without any change of play in CV
[Examples: White: king e1, man h2; Black: men e3, h4: c3/b4/a5(f2), d4+];
- completion of a capture by a king to different squares of the same diagonal, without any change of play in CV
[Examples: White: kings e5, h6, Black: men a3, d6: c7/b8(b2), e5+];
- prolongation of the solution through the position repetition
[Examples: White: kings a3, f4, h2, Black: king d4 men g7, h4: g1(df6), b2 [h2(d4), g1], g3, h8+];
- alternative capture in different directions
[Examples: White: king h2, Black: men c7, e7, g3, g5, g7, - h2:f4:h6:b8 / h2:d6:f8:b8].

Note: an exception is the alternative capturing move "Mill-capture":
a) circuitous capture in different directions
[Examples: White: king d8, Black: men b4, c7, e7, f4, - d8:a5:d8 / d8:g5:d8];
b) circuitous capture being a part of a more complicated capture
[Examples: White: man h2, Black: men d2, e5, e7, g3, g5, g7, - h2:f4:h6:f8:d6:c1 / h2:f4:d6:f8:c1].

3.2.5. Economy
Endgame studies' form must be economical. They must not contain any figurants (that is, the pieces bearing no meaning) which can be removed from the board without any distortion of author's intention.
Economy of the final/final motif/system: they must not contain superfluous white pieces not necessary for the fulfilment of the task.
The economy of the blocking-finals in endgame studies consists in the absence of superfluous pieces not necessary for the fulfilment of the task, i.e. for the win. The kind (man or king) of the blocking pieces is not taken into account.
Some requirements to the economy of endgame studies are given in the art. 2.3.6., treating of the aesthetic requirements.

3.3. Aesthetic Requirements to Endgame studies
Violation of the aesthetic requirements reduces the endgame study's merit.
3.3.1. Legality
The initial position of endgame studies must be legal, that is, it must meet the rules of the draughts game. In the case when the preliminary attacking move ("ready capture") by Black seems to be impossible, the author must indicate a proof of such possibility according to the Rules valid for the period of the conduct of the respective composing competition. The proof of legality must be started from an array in which none of the pieces of both coloures is under attack.
It is not necessary to prove the legality of a position which contains no attacking black piece ("ready capture").
3.3.2. Originality of Composer's Intention:
a) thematic novelty: search of new themes, new combination of known themes, finals/final motifs/systems, CVs (CompTrPls, CompVirtPls);
b) novelty of ideas: search of new ideas, beautiful exhibition of known ideas and play devices.
3.3.3. Beauty of Solution
Beauty of solution is achieved through non-obvious, hard to be found moves, in conjunction with effective finals/final motifs/systems.
3.3.4. Branching into Variations
According to the definition (see art. 3.1.10.), any endgame study must contain not less than two CVs. And the more high-quality (consisting, also, of many moves) CVs, CompTrPls, CompVirtPls there are in an endgame study, the richer is its content.
3.3.5. Purity of Solution
The solution of endgame studies must be pure, that is it has to contain as few duals as possible. Absence (decrease in the number) of duals in CVs, CompTrPls, CompVirtPls results in positive aesthetic appreciation of endgame studies.
3.3.6. Naturalness and Economy
A natural array of pieces in the initial position of endgame studies is traditionally more acceptable. More desirable is the exhibition of ideas by fewer number of pieces (economically or as a miniature). Endgame study's economy also provides for:
- absence of exchange of pieces at the start of the solution (extension):
- active participation of all pieces in the solution;
- absence of passive pieces. The passive piece is a black piece which does not take part in the solution till the final/final motif/system. In contrast to figurants, passive pieces cannot be removed from the board without any distortion of the author's intention;
- initial positions containig attacking black pieces ("ready capture") should be avoided;
- it is undesirable to use kings in endgame studies not in accordance with their proper features. The only justification for the use of kings instead of men without enrichment of the content is the elimination of side solutions.

(to be continued)


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CPI FMJD RULES FOR DRAUGHTS COMPOSITION IN RUSSIAN DRAUGHTS (Правила для русских шашек CPI FMJD) Empty Re: CPI FMJD RULES FOR DRAUGHTS COMPOSITION IN RUSSIAN DRAUGHTS (Правила для русских шашек CPI FMJD)

Сообщение  Admin в Сб Окт 08, 2016 9:06 am

4. ZADACHAS

See the "Iternational CPI FMJD Rules for Zadachas".

5. PUBLICATION AND PRIORITY
5.1. Publication
A composition (a work of the draughts conposition) exists:
– from the date of publication in print media (newspaper, bulletin, journal/magazine, book — regardless of the mode of publication). A private letter cannot be regarded as a print media.
– from the closing date for sending compositions to a competition (indicated in the competition's regulations) in which the composition participates;
– from the time of the publication of a composition on the Internet.
When publishing a composition, the following accompanying information must be indicated:
– first name and last name of the author(s);
– settlement, country;
– diagram or position in notation;
– task.
5.2. Priority
Priority: the right of authorship for a composition. The author acquires the right of authorship for a composition from the moment of its existing. In case of republishing, author's name has to be indicated along with reference to the source of the original publication.
5.3. Anticipation. Correction.
Anticipation (or: anticipating composition) is the composition which was published before the comparable one (anticipated composition) and which has the same, as the comparable composition, idea (IA — idea anticipation) or theme (TA — thematic anticipation).
There are to be distinguished: the complete anticipation and the partial anticipation. In the first case, both form and content coincide, in the second — the content partially coincides. An example of complete anticipation is a version of a known composition (version: a construction modification combined with an insignificant difference in content). Versions include: position shifting, position mirroring, displacement/rearrangement of pieces, substitution or addition of secondary branches of solution. A composition being completely anticipated (coincidence) loses the right to exist.
In the case of a partial anticipation, the anticipated composition is published with the indication of the original author ("A") and the new author ("B"). If the earlier composition is improved insignificantly (e.g. a flaw is removed), then the new one is published under the name "A", below which "improved version by B" is indicated. Such improved versions are ineligible for any competitions. In the case of significant improvement of the earlier composition, the new one is published under the name "B", below which "after A" is indicated. Such improved versions are eligible for competitions, but the author must indicate the source of the adoption.
In agreement with the author of the earlier composition, any other composer has the right to correct or improve it and to publish the new composition as a joint ("co-author") one ("A" and "B").
Any author has the right to develop any versions of his/her own composition as well as the right to publish them or submit to competitions. In the latter case, namely, when entering several versions for the same competition, only one of them will receive a mark. A composition which is found to be unsound (defective) may be corrected by any composer. Nevertheless, within five years (after the unsoundness was found) the privilege to correct the unsound composition (in case of submitting it to a competition) lies with the author.
A composition eliminated for whatever reason is eligible, after its correction or rehabilitation, to participate in only one new competition (besides the next championship).
A complication or a version of a composition for which International Master points (IMP) have been gained are not eligible to participate in a competition of the same qualification level, but they are eligible to participate in a regional competitions not subject to the international qualification.

6. COMPOSING COMPETITIONS
The main kinds of individual and team competitions for composing are contests, championships, matches. Competitions are conducted by the CPI, national draughts federations, clubs, newspapers, journals/magazines, etc.
6.1. Levels of Rules for Competitions
To competitions, the following three levels of rules for composing may be applied from the point of view of conformity of solution variations to the requirements of these Rules: Classical Rules (RC), Rules of Master (RM), Rules Superior (RS).
The technical quality of a composition depends on how close it is in conformity to the RS. The best is the full conformity with the RS. This, however, does not imply that a composition which conforms to the RS is automatically superior to the composition which conforms to the RM.

Classical Rules (RC)
A composition conforms to the RC, if:
a) the composition has a solution;
b) the composition has only one solution, namely, the one given by the author;
c) there are no figurants;
d) there is no complete coincidence with any composition published previously;
e) in all types, except for Zadachas, the play ends in a system, final, or final position of the categories A, B, C, D.
Any composition, either composed or taken from an over-the-board game, can be regarded as a work of the draughts composition if it conforms to the RC.
At this level of the rules, the variations of the author's solution may conform to the categories from the First to Fifth of the classification of the variations: for problems — art.2.1.11., for endgame studies — art.3.1.10.

Rules of Master (RM)
A composition conforms to the RM if it conforms to the following requirements:
a) in the initial position, the material balance advantage for either colour is of not more than two pieces;
b) the composition has a solution;
c) the composition has only one solution, namely, the one indicated by the author;
d) there is no dual both in the introduction and in the main part of all types and subtypes of the Problem. Here, the variations of the author's solution must conform to the First category of the classification of the variations for Problems — art. 2.1.11.;
e) there is no dual in the development of play both of endgame studies and of the endgame position of all types and subtypes of the Problem, or there is not more than one type of the dual in any variation. Here, the variations of the author's solution may conform to the categories First to Fifth of the classification of the variations for Endgame Studies — art. 3.1.10. (in this case, the endgame study must contain not less than two pure compositional variations without any duals);
f) there are no figurants;
g) there is no complete coincidence with any composition published previously;
h) in all types, except for zadachas, the play ends in a system, final, or final position of the categories A, B, C, D.
For endgame studies, zadachas, the types and subtypes of the Problem (section 2 of the Rules), where the material balance (of White and Black) is not regulated, the point "a" does not apply.

Rules Superior (RS)
A composition conforms to the RS if it conforms to the following requirements:
a) the initial position contains no illegal ready captures;
b) in the initial position there is either the force parity (i.e. equal numbers of pieces) of White and Black, or the force disparity (i.e. unequal numbers of pieces) of White and Black of no more than one piece;
c) the composition has a solution;
d) the composition has only one solution, namely, the one indicated by the author;
e) there is not a single dual; the variations of the author's solution must conform to the First category of the classification of the variations: for problems — art.2.1.11., and for endgame studies — art.3.1.10. (in endgame studies, at least three pure compositional variations with full absence of duals are sufficient);
f) there are neither passive pieces nor figurants;
g) there is no complete coincidence with any composition published previously;
h) in all types, except for zadachas, the play ends in a system, final, or final position of the categories A, B, D.
Force parity of White and Black may be indicated in the conditions of a competition as a requirement; in this case, the pt. "b" does not apply.
For endgame studies, zadachas, the types and subtypes of the Problem (section 2 of the
Rules), where the material balance (of White and Black) is not regulated, the pt. "b" does not apply.
6.2. Contests (held with the authority of the CPI)
In composing contests, the best compositions submitted to them are identified.
The contests fall: into the free-theme contests and the thematic contests (i.e. with a set theme provided); into the open contests (the judges know the authors of the compositions; also, free participation on a regional basis) and the closed contests (the judges do not know compositions' authors; the contests are limited to particular regions). The organisers are free in the choice for contests: of themes, types and subtypes of the draughts composition.
The winners of contests are awarded prizes, diplomas, letters of commendation, certificates of honour.
In the regulations of the contests the following features have to be indicated:
a) organizer;
b) genre of contest (e.g. thematic, open);
c) sections (in accordance with the types of the draughts composition) and their themes;
d) admissible number of compositions per author;
e) address and closing date for sending the entries (not less than three months from the date of publication of the regulations);
f) procedure of the determination of the winners;
g) number of prizes, other distinctions;
h) panel of judges.

The organisers of contests are obliged:
a) to publish — not later than the date stated in these Rules — the provisional/preliminary results;
b) after one month since the date of publication of the comments to the competing compositions and of the list of the eliminated compositions, to declare — taking into account the additional comments received — the final awarding;
c) upon the approval of the results, to send the awarded distinctions to the winners.
The number of the compositions allowed to be submitted by a composer to any particular contest — not more than 2 in each of the categories indicated in the regulations.

6.3. World Championships
World Championship in Draughts Composition for Individuals: a competition in which the best — for a definite period of time — composers and compositions are identified.
The winners of the world championships are awarded prizes, medals (badges), diplomas, letters of commendation.
In the regulations of every world championship the following features are to be indicated:
a) timeframe/dates;
b) list of participants (if necessary);
c) sections (in accordance with the types of the draughts composition) and themes;
d) admissible number of compositions per author;
e) address and closing date for sending the entries (not less than three months from the date of publication of the regulations);
f) ranking procedure;
g) Awarding of the winners;
h) panel of judges;
i) conditions for submission of applications;
The same composition may participate both in a contest and a championship.
The number of compositions allowed to be submitted by one competitor to one Championship of the CPI — not more than 10 (in each of the types), or — not more than 2 (in each of the sections specified in the regulations).

6.4. Team Competitions
Team competitions are recommended to be organised in the form of matches between the teams of states, cities, regions. The matches may be conducted on the one-against-one principle or on the contest principle.
In the match held on the one-against-one principle, the composers compete in separate pairs each of which is offered a specific section (theme). The winner of each pair gets 2 points, the loser — 0 (zero) points. In the case of equal quality of compositions, both composers get 1 point each. The winning team is determined according to the maximum sum of points got by its participants.
In the match held on the contest principle, each section is proposed a specific theme. All compositions of each section constitute a contest and get marks according to their merit. The winning team is determined according to the maximum sum of points got by its participants in all sections.
Note. A participant who submitted no composition by the closing date specified in the regulations or whose composition was found to be unsound gets 0 (zero) points.
Each team participating in a match must have a team captain elected, as a rule, from among the members of the team. The team captain is its leader and mediator between the members of his/her team and the judge (panel of judges).

6.5. Recognition
The competitions conducted not by the CPI directly have to be recognised by the CPI before their start.
The procedure of the recognition of the competitions organised outside the CPI is as follows:
a) The organiser has to submit to the CPI:
- before the start of the judging — a copy of the regulations of the competition and the list of the members of the panel of judges;
- after the completion of the competition — all the compositions registered for participating in the competition, its final/definitive results which came into force, and the copies of the judges' awards.
b) The CPI recognises only that competition organised outside the CPI which does not contradict the Statutes of the CPI and these Rules.

6.6. Announcement of Competition
The competition organised by the CPI (or conducted with the authority of the CPI) starts from the date of publication of its announcement and regulations (in two of the FMJD's three official languages, viz., English/French and Russian) on the website http://www.fmjd.org/ , where, also, all its subsequent materials indicated in these Rules have to be published.
Announcements of the competitions recognised by the CPI is published in newspapers, magazines/journals, and on websites.
The Regulations should include the following features:
a) the competition organiser;
b) sections and themes for each section;
c) the earliest permissible date of publication for eligible compositions;
d) the admissible number of entries to each section per author;
e) panel of judges;
f) the coordinator’s full name (along with the official form of address) and addresses, both postal and e-mail;
g) the closing date for entries (not earlier than three months after the date of the announcement) and the last date for entries' registration (not later than two months after the closing date);
h) other special conditions as defined by the organiser;
i) the procedure of summing up the results and of the determination of the winners;
j) timeframe/dates and place of publication of the final results;
k) awarding of the winners.

6.7. Form of Entries
Each entry is to be presented either on a separate sheet of paper (format A-4) or in a separate WORD-page.
The initial position of each entry is to be shown in diagram form. (It may be given by the author also in notation, but this condition is not obligatory.)
In addition, the following features should be indicated (on the front of each diagram):
a) name of the competition;
b) first name and last name of the author (co-author);
c) section and theme;
d) name and date of the first publication, if any;
e) in case of first publication, indication of this fact (e.g. "original");
f) if appropriate, indication that the version differs from the original publication ("correction", "version", "improved version");
g) information about participation in previous competitions;
h) task;
i) author's solution (along with which try plays and the corresponding virtual plays can also be given);
j) if so required, proof of legality of "ready capture(s).
The form of entries is given in "Annex-2".

6.8. Special Conditions
For the CPI contests are admissible: both new and published compositions (art. 5.1.), as well as the compositions which competed in contests and championships of states and regions which are held unaccountably to the CPI.
For the CPI championships are admissible: a) both new and published compositions (art. 5.1.), b) the compositions which competed in contests (including those organised by the CPI), c) the compositions which competed in championships of states and regions which are held unaccountably to the CPI.
For the CPI contests and championships are admissible: corrected compositions which received 0 (zero) points in previous competitions, except for the cases where their defects were found after their completion. Eligible for both individual and team competitions are joint (i.e. composed by two or more authors) compositions. International Master Points (IMP) gained by such compositions are awarded (including for the attribution of the corresponding international titles of the CPI) to those of the co-authors who sent them to the respective competition. The previously unpublished compositions accepted for a closed competition (author's names are not indicated) are not allowed to be published anywhere before the publication of the final results of the competition, otherwise they will be excluded from it.

7. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF PARTICIPANTS OF DRAUGHTS COMPOSING COMPETITIONS

7.1. Each participant has the right:
a) to correct, replace or withdraw his/her compositions before the closing date (in special cases, before the start of the judging);
b) before the publication of the final results, to raise objections — with the panel of judges and/or, through the judge-coordinator, with the CPI — against an awarding by a judge(s) of a respective section;
c) to address the judge-coordinator concerning his/her participation in the competition;
d) after completion of competition (a contest held with the authority of the CPI, or a contest/championship held unaccountably to the CPI), to send to a world championship his/her compositions which gained non-zero marks. Eligible for the contests held with the authority of the CPI are the compositions which received non-zero marks in the previous competitions held unaccountably to the CPI, provided the regulations of the respective CPI competitions so state.
Note. If any defect in a composition honoured with any distinction (prize, diploma, mark) was found after the publication of the final results, then neither the composition will be deprived of the respective distinction nor the author will be deprived of the place got by him/her in the respective competition. But after its correction, the composition is ineligible to participate in any other competition for original compositions, and in being published, this composition is accompanied by the indication: "correction/improvement".
7.2. Duties of Participant:
Each participant of a draughts composing competirion is obliged:
a) to know and to observe the articles of these Rules and of the Regulations of the respective competition (ignorance of these Rules and Regulations cannot justify their violation).
b) to resolve all the questions related to the conduct of the respective competition only through the judge-coordinator (or through the team captain in team matches), to respond to judge's requests concerning the clearing of solutions, but not to challenge the marks awarded to his/her compositions;
c) to uniformly draw up his/her entries: each on a separate standard size sheet of paper (format A-4) with a left margin for filing (2—3cm wide), or in a separate WORD-page;
d) to indicate complete solutions of his/her compositions, to indicate, separately from the main solution, the variations necessary for the proof (in cases of doubt) of a solution's uniqueness or of a composition's solvability.
e) to indicate in the application form for participation in a competition (on a separate sheet) his/her full name, postal address and e-mail address, if appropriate;
f) to observe the ethics, not to insult participants, judges, and the coordinator of the competition.

8. JUDGING
8.1. Judging of Competitions Conducted by the CPI
The judging of competitions conducted by the CPI is carried out by an international panel of judges. The minimum number of judges — 2, the maximum — 5. The final mark of a composition is the average of the marks of all judges.
With the number of judges 4 to 5, it is permitted (with the respective statement in the regulations) to discard the highest and the lowest marks and to calculate the average of all the remaining marks.
With a mixed composition of the panel of judges, it is permitted to determine the average mark of a composition through calculating it as the average of the average of the marks given by the judges (indicated in the regulations) and the average of the marks given by the competitors.
A judge may compete in a competition, but he/she is not entitled to judge his/her own entries. A judge may compete in a world championship for individuals (or in a World, Europe, America, Asia, Africa, Australian region Cup tournament), provided that the panel of judges consists of not less than 3 (three) judges.
The judges consider only the solution indicated by the author. The panel of judges of each competition organised by the CPI (or recognised by the CPI) are approved by the CPI before the judging starts. The organisor of the competition appoints a coordinator for receiving: entries submitted to the competition, the judges' awards, remarks concerning competing compositions, protests, as well as for fulfilment of other functions defined by these Rules.
The organisor, the judges and the participants of a competition are entitled to communicate with each other only through the coordinator. Direct communication is not forbidden but, in this case, a copy of the respective letter has to be sent to the coordinator.
8.2. Duties of Coordinator
The coordinator is obliged:
a) to have controls on acceptance of entries to competition;
b) to draw up the received entries as separate files for each section and to send them to respective judges.
c) to correspond with participants and judges concerning the questions of conduct of a respective competition;
d) to take part in the drawing up of the final award/results;
e) to send the competition materials (compositions along with solutions, remarks and eliminations, provisional and final results) for publication;
f) to observe the ethics, not to insult participants and judges of the competition.

8.3. Duties of Judge
a) upon receiving the materials from the coordinator, to provide, within the time limit specified in the regulations, the coordinator with his/her award including: marks, defects found in compositions, as well as comments, if necessary;
b) in case of appearing of additional information, to enter the respective additions in the award;
c) to be guided in his/her work by these Rules and by the "Guidance on Judging" (set out in Annex 1 to these Rules);
d) to observe competition's regulations;
e) to observe the ethics, not to insult participants and the coordinator of the competition.

8.4. Sequence of Actions of the Panel of Judges and of the Organiser in Conducting Competitions:
8.4.1. All the entries submitted to the address of the coordinator are registered and numbered on a first-come, first-served basis. Acceptable are the compositions sent personally by authors either by post or by e-mail. The compositions sent (according to the postmark or the e-mail message information) after the closing date stated in the announcement are not registered. Before the closing date, only one-time replacement of the entries sent earlier is permitted. The compositions submitted without solution, indication of full name and postal address, as well as the solutions provided without diagrams will not be registered. Besides, not registrable are the compositions being indecipherable or drawn up carelessly. The coordinator has to notify the authors concerned of the reasons for the refusal to register them.
8.4.2. The coordinator, not later than a month from the last date for entry registration, must forward all the registered entries (drawn up uniformly on the computor) to the judges (in the order of the entry registration, as well as without indicating the names of the authors — if the competition is held without indication of author's names, or in the order of the entry registration only — if the competition is held with the indication of author's names). Upon sending the entries to the judges, the coordinator must publish the compositions (in the same form and order as sent to the judges) with the request to both participants and non-participants to send to his/her address their remarks to them (side solutions, no solution, anticipations, etc.).
8.4.3. Not later than three months after the publication of the registered entries, the coordinator must send all the remarks received by him/her to the judges.
8.4.4. The judges — not later than 15 days after receiving the marks transmitted to them from the coordinator — must send him/her their own remarks (anticipations, side solutions, no solution, etc.) and have to indicate which of the compositions gained a zero mark.
Then the coordinator is working at achieving agreement among the judges as to elimination of some of the compositions. Zero marks must be given by the judges' common agreement. In case of dispute as to allocating zero marks, the coordinator brings this issue to the CPI, and the CPI's decision is definitive.

8.4.5. After the agreement concerning the elimination of the disputed compositions is achieved, the coordinator creates a data set of remarks, a table including the data on the eliminated compositions (along with the names of the authors affected) and sends all this to the judges, upon which the coordinator publishes these materials for acquaintance of participants.
8.4.6. Upon receiving the official information about the remarks to the compositions of the competition, anyone is entitled to raise objections with the judge-coordinator as to the supposed defects which they, in his/her view, are not. The coordinator must, without delay, notify the judges of the received objections.
Simultaneously, additional remarks are being accepted. In a month after the publication of the remarks, the receipt of objections will be discontinued.
8.4.7. Not later than two months after the publication of the remarks to the compositions (this time limit may be prolonged in a case if, instead of a judge who stopped or suspended his/her work, a new judge will be appointed by the organiser of the competition), each judge must prepare his/her award including marks of all compositions and comments to them (if the regulations so stated) and to send it to the coordinator.
8.4.8. The coordinator, not later than 15 days after receiving the judges' awards must prepare a summary award including names of all participants, marks of all compositions given by each judge, their averages (calculated by the coordinator) and the ranking in accordance with the average marks, and to send it (along with the judges' awards and other materials of the competition) to the organiser for approval.
When conducting a championship, the coordinator — in accordance with the average of the marks of the scoring compositions (whose number is defined in the championship's regulations) — calculates summary results of the participants and fixes their ranking.
8.4.9. The organiser must not later than two weeks after receiving the summary award from the coordinator approve it in the CPI and publish as difinitive award (results) of the competition. (The attribution of Master points in competitions organised by the CPI or recognised by the CPI is carried out in accordance with the Statutes of the CPI, part 2: "Regulation of the attribution of titles").
8.4.10. The final (difinitive/decisive) results shall come into force from the moment of their publication.
8.4.11. After the publication of the final results the organiser must ensure that the winners receive their prizes and other distinctions.
8.4.12. The responsibility for observing these International Rules lies with the organiser of the competition (CPI, national draughts federations, clubs, editors of newspapers, magazines/journals, etc).
8.4.13. The participation in the competitions organised (or recognised) by the CPI FMJD implies that the participant agrees to abide by these International Rules.
These Rules were originally written in Russian and then translated into English. In case of eventual differences in interpretation of some of their items, the Russian language, as the language of the original, is definitive.

Guidance for Judging
(Annex 1 to the "CPI FMJD Rules for Draughts Composition in Russian Draughts")
Sections 3 and 4 of this Guidance are recommendations, and it is within the judge's discretion either to observe or not to observe them.)

1) a composition is not accepted for a competition if:
- it is submitted after the closing date stated in the competition regulations,
- it is submitted without solution (or the given initial position does not conform to the given solution),
- it is submitted without indication of the participant's name and address,
- it is submitted without initial position, even if it is given in notation,
- it is drawn up either in an indecipherable or careless manner,
- the limit, defined by the regulations, of the number of compositions acceptable for a competition is exceeded (the over-the-limit compositions are excluded according to the author's numbering, or, with numbering being absent, intentionally).

2) Cases of allocating a zero mark:
- the composition does not conform to the type or to the force limit stated in the regulations,
- the composition does not conform to the theme stated in the regulations,
- the composition does not conform to the time limit for publication stated in the regulations,
- the composition submitted for a contest received a mark in another contest (unless such situation is especially stated in the regulations),
- the composition is published by the author before the time limit defined for the completion of the competition (for new compositions),
- the composition completely repeats the one published previously (coincidence) or is its version,
- the material balance (of White and Black) does not conform to the Rules,
- the first move of the solution is a capture (except for the cases stipulated by the "Iternational CPI FMJD Rules for Zadachas"),
- the composition has no solution (a draw is found for Black; a win is found if the task is "Draw"); likewise, if a composition has no solution as a result of the author's inexact analysis (including the cases of no solution of try- and virtual plays),
- the composition has a complete side solution,
- there is a partial side solution in the only compositional variation of the main combinational part of a problem, miniature or zadacha-like problem,
- there is a partial side solution in the only compositional variation or in all compositional variations of the endgame of a problem, miniature, king problem or zadacha-like problem,
- there are two duals in the only compositional variation of the main combinational part or endgames of a polyproblem,
- the endgame study has two duals in all compositional variations,
- the composition contains figurants,
- the composition has no final/final motif/system, that is, it has no economical final position provided for in these Rules,
- the endgame study, zadacha or polyproblem contains less than two compositional variations,
- the problem, miniature, king problem, zadacha-like problem or polyproblem contain no signs of combinational play in the main combinational part.

3) Cases in which the mark is reduced
3.1. Illegality of the initial position
- a composition contains one "ready capture" having no proof of legality — reducing coefficient 0,9;
- a composition contains two "ready captures" having no proof of legality — reducing coefficient 0,7;
- a composition contains three "ready captures" having no proof of legality — reducing coefficient 0,5;
- a composition contains more than three "ready captures" having no proof of legality — reducing coefficient 0,3;
3.2. Idea Anticipation
a) for problems and miniatures.
- the main combinational idea is adopted, while the endgame is different — reducing coefficient 0,3; (if the idea anticipation contained no compositional endgame, then the reducing coefficient 0,5),
- complication of adopted basis — reducing coefficient 0,5—1,0,
- modification of adopted basis — reducing coefficient 0,5—1,0,
- endgame is adopted — reducing coefficient 0,9—1,0 (for miniatures — 0,5—1,0);
b) for endgame studies.
- addition of a variationless introductory play — reducing coefficient 0,1,
- addition of one compositional try play — reducing coefficient 0,1—0,2,
- addition of two and more compositional try- and virtual plays — reducing coefficient 0,5—0,8,
- addition of one compositional variation — reducing coefficient 0,2—0,6,
- addition of one compositional variation and one compositional try play — reducing coefficient 0,5—0,8,
- addition of two or more compositional variations — reducing coefficient 0,5—1,0.
3.3. Thematic Anticipation
The thematic anticipation does not affect the mark of a composition.
3.4. Presence of Duals
- move reordering — minus 2 points,
- sacrifice of different pieces — minus 2 points,
- movement of a man through adjacent squares ("alternative move") — minus 3 points,
- movement of a king to different squares of a diagonal without change of play in the CV — minus 3—5 points,
- completion of a capture by a king to different squares of a diagonal without change of play in the CV — minus 2—3 points,
- prolongation of solution by one move without repetition of position — minus 3 points,
- delay in the solution through position repetition — minus 5 points,
- alternative capture — minus 3—5 points,
3.5. Presence of Extension
Presence of a forced extension in the introductory play of endgame studies — minus 2—5 points, of zadachas — minus 2—10 points,
3.6. Record of Solution
- system's variations given by the author in the solution, or a final motif of the category A given up to the final are not penalized by penalty points,
- play of a final motif of the categories B, C given by the author up to the final in the solution — reducing coefficient (for a variation) 0,95,
- disguising of a dual through solution interrupting — reducing coefficient (for a variation) 0,9,
- disguising of a dual through recording only black moves — reducing coefficient (for a variation) 0,9.
3.7. Passive pieces
Passive pieces (that is, the pieces taking part in a problem but not playing or playing indirectly in the main combinational part) are not penalized.
In cases when a passive piece neither moves in the course of the play (even in the endgame), nor eliminates side solutions, nor changes essentially a final motif's category — reducing coefficient (for a variation) 0,5.
3.8. Use of Kings
- unjustified use of kings in king problems, endgame studies or zadachas — reducing coefficient 0,01.
4) Cases in which the mark is increased
Beauty and Aesthetics are comprehended differently by different people (judges), depending on their education and experience gained both from life and from draughts composition. Therefore, only probable possibilities for increasing marks are indicated here, without any specific values:
- naturalness of initial arrangement,
- exactness of play up to the final,
- depth of variations,
- multi-move combination,
- presence of two or more variations in problems, miniatures, king problems and zadacha-like problems,
- multy-variationness in endgame studies,
- absence of passive pieces,
- new complex of finals,
- brilliant final or final motif or endgame.

Form of Entries
(Annex 2 to the "CPI FMJD Rules for Draughts Composition in Russian Draughts")

Abstract example:

World Championship 64 CPI, 2011
M.Tumanov
Section: Endgame Studies, Category A

White: king a3, man g1 (2);
Black: king e3, man g7 (2).
Win

Solution: c1(a7 A), e3, e3, f4+; A(eh6), f2(f6), fe3+.

Legality (if appropriate):

Published: journal "Zhivopisnoe Obozrenie" [ж. "Живописное обозрение"], 1898.

No participation in competitions.

Date of drawing up.


::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Translated from Russian by
Semion Berenstein
(Ukraine Grandmaster for draughts compositions)
Germany, Halle, 25th September 2016.
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CPI FMJD RULES FOR DRAUGHTS COMPOSITION IN RUSSIAN DRAUGHTS (Правила для русских шашек CPI FMJD) Empty Re: CPI FMJD RULES FOR DRAUGHTS COMPOSITION IN RUSSIAN DRAUGHTS (Правила для русских шашек CPI FMJD)

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